Archives par mot-clé : Vietnamiennes

Pierre Daum : Résistances paysannes au Vietnam

Parution d’une enquête de Pierre Daum sur un sujet d’une brûlante actualité. A lire dans Le Monde Diplomatique. Aperçu.

Assoiffé de croissance, le Vietnam mise sur l’essor des industries utilisatrices de main-d’œuvre et sur le développement de l’immobilier — sans regarder de trop près les conséquences pour l’environnement et pour les terres agricoles. Ce qui suscite la colère de nombreux paysans.

En avril 2017, le village de Dong Tam, à la périphérie de Hanoï, fut le théâtre d’un surprenant fait divers. Des centaines de paysans, qui protestaient depuis des mois contre l’expropriation de leurs terres dans le cadre d’un projet de construction immobilière, osèrent séquestrer pendant plus d’une semaine trente-huit policiers venus les déloger. Au lieu de recourir à la force pour libérer leurs agents, les autorités vietnamiennes envoyèrent le président du comité populaire de Hanoï, M. Nguyen Duc Chung, négocier avec les preneurs d’otages. Ceux-ci finirent par relâcher leurs prisonniers, en échange de la promesse de meilleures indemnisations.

Ce n’est pas le seul cas. À Nam O, au centre du pays, un village côtier réputé pour l’excellence de son nuoc-mâm, plusieurs familles refusent actuellement de quitter leurs maisons pour laisser place à la construction d’un immense complexe touristique. Celui-ci absorberait toute la plage et les empêcherait de poursuivre leur activité de pêche, essentielle à la fabrication de cette célèbre sauce à base de poisson fermenté.

À Ho Chi Minh-Ville, la capitale économique, dans le sud, le dernier morceau de verdure du centre-ville, dans le quartier de Thu Thiem, résiste depuis vingt ans à la bétonisation. Une poignée de cultivateurs opiniâtres multiplient les actions en justice contre l’arrêté d’expulsion dont ils font l’objet, arguant que toutes les procédures légales d’expropriation n’ont pas été respectées — et elles sont en effet nombreuses, tant les lois foncières au Vietnam ont tendance à s’empiler.

Lire la suite (accès restreint aux abonnés) : Le Monde Diplomatique

Image « à la une » : Vietnamiennes expropriées demandant justice © DR

Sud Chonchirdsin: Women and the Vietnam War [British Library]

[ndlr] A lire sur le site de la British Library, une courte synthèse illustrée sur les femmes vietnamiennes pendant la guerre.

Surprisingly, a large number of women were directly engaged in the Vietnam War. On the American side, there is no precise figure for how many women were involved but it is estimated that between 5,000 and 11,000 took part in the war. The majority worked as nurses, whilst the rest had mostly clerical roles, or were involved in war journalism. However Vietnamese women took a much more active role in the war than their American counterparts and a good number were members of armed units and engaged in direct action against their enemy.

Traditionally, Vietnamese women were supposed to follow Confucian teachings. They were expected to observe chastity, to practise three submissions and obey three masters, namely their father, their husband and their eldest son. These obligations were followed by a long list of feminine ‘do’s and don’ts’. In work, they were expected to master cookery, sewing and embroidery but would not normally engage in reading and writing. In their physical appearance they were expected to dress in such a way that made them attractive to their husbands but not enticing to others (Marr 1984: 192) – not an easy balance to strike.

Lire la suite : British Library Blog, 06/10/2015.

Image « à la une » : Protect the Fatherland’s Sky (Bảo vệ bầu trơi tổ quốc) by Quang Phòng and Mai Văn Hiến. Việt Nam,  114 (3), 1967, p. 9. British Library, SU216(2)

Leshkowich, Ann Marie: Essential Trade – Vietnamese Women in a Changing Marketplace

Leshkowich_EssentialTradeVietnameseWomenParution d’ouvrage : présentation de l’éditeur.

“My husband doesn’t have a head for business,” complained Ngoc, the owner of a children’s clothing stall in Ben Thanh market. “Naturally, it’s because he’s a man.” When the women who sell in Ho Chi Minh City’s iconic marketplace speak, their language suggests that activity in the market is shaped by timeless, essential truths: Vietnamese women are naturally adept at buying and selling, while men are not; Vietnamese prefer to do business with family members or through social contacts; stallholders are by nature superstitious; marketplace trading is by definition a small-scale enterprise.

Essential Trade looks through the façade of these “timeless truths” and finds active participants in a political economy of appearances: traders’ words and actions conform to stereotypes of themselves as poor, weak women in order to clinch sales, manage creditors, and protect themselves from accusations of being greedy, corrupt, or “bourgeois” – even as they quietly slip into southern Vietnam’s growing middle class. But Leshkowich argues that we should not dismiss the traders’ self-disparaging words simply because of their essentialist logic. In Ben Thanh market, performing certain styles of femininity, kinship relations, social networks, spirituality, and class allowed traders to portray themselves as particular kinds of people who had the capacity to act in volatile political and economic circumstances. When so much seems to be changing, a claim that certain things or people are inherently or naturally a particular way can be both personally meaningful and strategically advantageous.

Based on ethnographic fieldwork and life history interviewing conducted over nearly two decades, Essential Trade explores how women cloth and clothing traders like Ngoc have plied their wares through four decades of political and economic transformation: civil war, postwar economic restructuring, socialist cooperativization, and the frenetic competition of market socialism. With close attention to daily activities and life narratives, this groundbreaking work of critical feminist economic anthropology combines theoretical insight, vivid ethnography, and moving personal stories to illuminate how the interaction between gender and class has shaped people’s lives and created market socialist political economy. It provides a compelling account of postwar southern Vietnam as seen through the eyes of the dynamic women who have navigated forty years of profound change while building their businesses in the stalls of Ben Thanh market.

Ann Marie Leshkowich is professor of anthropology at College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, Massachusetts.

Source : University of Hawaii Press.

Page personnelle de l’auteure : Leshkowitch Homepage.

Réf. : Leshkowich, Ann Marie, Essential Trade. Vietnamese Women in a Changing Marketplace, Honolulu, HI, University of Hawaii Press, coll. Southeast Asia: Politics, Meaning and Memory, 2014, 286 p. ISBN: 978-0-8248-3991-8